The History of Modern Furniture

It was in the 19th century after the industrial revolution had given birth to a new class of people that modernistic ideas evolved. The traditional dark, gilded or carved wood, covered with heavy richly patterned fabrics cave way to light and simple looking furniture. Between the nobility and the down trodden poor the middle class had emerged.

They cast aside anything that was related to the rich who had trampled the poor ruthlessly. Also influences from Africa, Asia and especially Japan had a lasting effect on designing of modern furniture. Functionality, practicality and economic feasibility were the new order in furniture. Technology and industrial advancement were already playing their role in making of simplistic yet practical furniture.

Michael Thonet an Austrian German cabinet maker was the first to experiment in making bent wood furniture and using glue for joining wood pieces. His coffee shop chair also known as 'Konsumstuhl Nr 14' became world famous and till 1930 over 50 million of these chairs were produced. Another famous chair of that era was the 'Tripolina chair'. It was made of wood, metal and canvas and was patented by Joseph Fendy in 1877. This chair was widely used by the British troops during the colonial period. The director's chair is a simple folding chair that uses a scissor action to fold and is made of wood and canvas, or any other strong material that can bear the weight of the occupant. The design of this chair dates back to the 15th century and the design has been taken from ancient Roman folding stools.

Some of the iconic examples of modern furniture are the Marcel Breur's Wassily chair. This chair uses lightweight tubular steel and leather straps. The exquisite and simplistic design of these geometric shaped planes almost makes the leather straps appear to be suspended in space. The Ellen Gray side table, the Barcelona chair and Noguchi table are some of the other icons of modern furniture.

Modern furniture is functional, practical and tastefully designed to give a feeling of comfort and lightness. It differs completely from the dark and heavily embroidered medieval furniture. Metals, plastics, glass are now used along with wood in making modern furniture and a whole new generation of fabrics and colors are used. The fabrics used are of bold and bright colors which make modern furniture look inviting and artistic. Contemporary furniture has taken many forms and shapes and furniture designers use geometric patterns to create modern furniture.

Most contemporary furniture is lightweight, easy to assemble and disassemble and importantly easy to maintain. Modern furniture also has an individualistic theme, designed to suit the type of décor people want for their homes and workplaces. Colors are popularly used to make a room or office appear pleasant and relaxing. Drab, dreary and heavy colors are no longer used. If a heavy color like black is used, it will be contrasted with white or shining steel. It is modern furniture that has changed the look of the home from a formal and staid place to a casual and relaxing environment.

Spy Gadgets For Fun and Security

As a kid, were you intrigued by the enticing ads in your comic books? You know the ones I mean, gadgets that would enable you to see around corners, or listen to conversations right through walls? We could not resist the appeal, especially since they only cost a dollar or two. Before we knew it, we'd be sealing our hopes, as well as our money in an envelope, eagerly awaiting the day our special spy toys would arrive in our mailbox.

Since those days, we've enjoyed thriller spy movies, and endless crime shows on television, where investigators employ every trick in the book to solve the latest case. We are amazed by the speed and accuracy of intranet lab work, digital enhancements, and computer imaging. As cutting edge as all of this is, there are some techniques that have been around a long, long time.

Did you ever try using invisible ink when you were a child? This was a fun thing to do that rated right up there with magic and card tricks. By mixing up a special ink of milk, lemon juice, or sugar water, your secret message would only be visible when the paper was heated. Invisible ink is still used today, but instead of exposing the message to heat, a prescribed wavelength of ultraviolet light is used.

We all have a yard of spy satellites that circle the globe gathering information from high above the earth. Before satellites, airplanes were used for intelligence missions in World War II, which enabled military leaders the chance to monitor allied and enemy movements. It is astounding to think that even way back in the American Civil War, observation balloons were floated by both sides in the conflict, to observe their own, and enemy troop locations.

Movies are ripe with many measures taken by spies as they alter their appearance in order not to be recognized. We've seen hair being cut and dyed, women dressing as men, and in one instance in 1754, Chevalier d'Eon de Beaumont was sent to St. Louis. Petersburg posing as Mademoiselle Lia de Beaumont. As improbable as it may seem, the ploy worked, and Tsarina Elisabeth was persuaded to forgo a strategy with Britain, and side with Austria and France instead.

In some old films we see bandages being slowly unwrapped on a surgically rearranged face. Or in some flicks, complete latex masks with hair attached, completely change the facial appearance of a character. Today, with the use of facial recognition software, spies may have to forgo a mask or simple change of attire, and revert to plastic surgery once again.

Today, digital technology has resulated in devices that are so small and effective that the modern day spy can literally mostly on gathering information remotely. Without the agent absolutely has to, there is no need for elaborate disguises. Devices can simply be put in place and activated, which means that we can all become spies if need be.

Just about any everyday item can be used as a camera. A light fixture, a calculator, or a smoke detector can have a tiny camera inserted into it, so that photos can be taken without the slightest hint of what's going on. Spy Cams can help protect your business and your home. They can also keep people honest. Just knowing that areas are being monitored makes us all safer.

There are devices that can be installed on your computer to monitor what's being watched and messages that are being sent and received. The SIM card can be removed from a cell phone and inserted into a special device that displays all the deleted text messages. All these items have become completely affordable, easy to obtain, and use.

A really exciting development is the GPS tracker. With a personal tracker you can monitor your children, ensuring that they are safe at all times, and knowing their location if they suddenly need help. Then there is another version that you can use for your vehicles. Car theft is rampant and on the rise. If one of your cars is stolen, this device will greatly aid the police in returning your property to you.

Now that you are all grown up, with property and loved ones to protect, is not it comforting to know that spy gadgets are still available? This time, however, you will not need to consult the back pages of your comic book. Today, with just a few clicks of your mouse, you can access spy shop catalogs online, and order some neat spy gadgets conveniently from your computer.

Major Facts About Partnership And Business

A partnership can be defined as an association of two or more persons who have agreed to combine their labor, property, and skill, or some or all of them, for the purpose of engaging in legal business and sharing profits and losses between them.

Partnerships present the involved parties with special challenges that must be communicated before agreement. Overarching goals, levels of give-and-take, areas of responsibility, lines of authority and success, how success is evaluated and distributed, and often a variety of other factors must all be negotiated. Once agreement is reached, the partnership is typically enforceable by civil law, especially if well documented. Partners who wish to make their agreement affirmatively explicit and enforceable typically draw up Articles of Partnership.

A partnership is particularly very attractive if it helps to pool the talents or skills of partners for their mutual benefit. Partnerships require individuals who are compatible, honest, healthy, capable, dedicated and equally motivated to succeed. And because of the voluntary nature of partnerships, they are reliably easy to set up.
The term business in this definition includes every trade, occupation, and profession. Therefore, this article becomes very necessary for every individual to have the idea of ​​bargaining / planning and negotiation in any kind of business level.

Humans are social beings, partnerships between individuals, businesses, interest-based organizations, schools, governments, and diverse combinations thereof, have always been and remain commonplace. In the most frequently associated instance of the term, a partnership is formed between one or more businesses in which partners (owners) co-labor to achieve and share profits and losses. Partnerships exist within, and across, sectors. Non-profit, religious, and political organizations may partner together to increase the likelihood of each achieving their mission and to amplify their reach. It is sometimes considered as alliance, governments may partner to achieve their national interests.

A partner acts as an agent of the firm in the conduct of its business. A partner must, however, exercise the highest degree of good faith in all transactions with the other partners, devote time and attention to the partnership business, and must account to the other partners for any secret profits made in the conduct of the partnership business. The liability of a partner for partnership debts is said to be unlimited, except when the partner is a limited one in a limited partnership organized in accordance with the provisions of a state statute permitting such limitation of liability.

FORMATION OF PARTNERSHIP
A partnership comes into existence by a contract entered into by the parties concerned. No formality is required but the agreement could be writing, inferior from conduct or oral. The agreement to form a partnership is known as a "Partnership Contract", the most important provision of which spells out the manner in which profits are to be distributed.

Partnerships are governed by the law of contract. It is advisable for individuals who wish to form a partnership to draw up what we called "Articles of Partnership". The article of Partnership essentially contains these items below:
• Name of Partnership
• Name and Addresses of each partner
• Statement of Business Purpose (s)
• Duration of the Partnership
• Name and Location of the Business
• Amount Invested by Each Partner
• Ratio for Sharing Profit
• Accounting Records and their Accessibility to Partners
• Specific Duties of Each Partner
• Provision or the Dissolution of Partnership and Sharing of Net Assets.
• Provision for Protection of Surviving Partners, Decedent's Estate, etc.
• Restraints on a Partner's Assumption of Special Obligations.

TYPES OF PARTNERS
There are five types of partners:
1. Active Partner: – This is the partner who participates in all the activities of the partnership.
2. Dormant or Sleeping Partner: – This is the partner who does not take an active part in the activities of the partnership but shares in the profit.
3. Nominal Partner: – This is a person who lends his name to a lends his name to the partners for a consideration.
4. Secret Partner: – This is a partner who takes an active part in the affairs of the company but he / she is not known by the public as part of the partnership.
5. Silent Partner: – This is a partner who is known by the public as part of the partnership; But he / she does not take an active part in the management of the enterprise.

ADVANTAGES OF PARTNERSHIP
1. Greater Source of Capital: – The pooling of the individual resources of each partner helps to raise a large capital. It makes it possible for an individual with the know-how, new product, invention, or new idea but no money, to work with man with money who is interested in the project.

2. Greater Specialized Management: – The ownership of a business by two or more people makes it possible for them to pool their skills and judgment for the benefit of all concerned.

3. Greater Incentive for Employees: – Employees in partnerships tend to enjoy better fringe benefit package and higher salies. They have better prospects for earned recognition and promotions.

4. Legal Recognition: – There is a partnership law that regulates the relationship between partners themselves, and between the partners and their parties that they have to deal with.

DISADVANTAGES OF PARTNERSHIP
1. Personality Clashes: – Partnership require cooperation, trust and dedication but failure on the part of one of the active partners to discharge his / her own responsibilities that could have led to personality clashes and to the end of the partnership. Partnerships are known to have ended because the members could not agree on the best course of action to take on an important issue.

2. Difficulty in Withdrawals: – The contribution of each partner ceases to be the property of the individual making the contribution. When a partner needs money, he / she can not withdraw his / her contribution or borrow money from the partnership without the express permission of the other partners. Many entrepreneurs dislike this lack of flexibility characteristic of partnerships.

3. Unlimited Liability: – Each partner is held liable for the obligations of the partnership. If one of the partners makes a costly mistake in the execution of the affairs of the partnership, creditors can sue, and if they obtain judgment against the partnership, each partner may have to sell his / her personal assets to meet the obligations.

4. Short Length of Life: – Factors like, death, prolonged ill-health, withdrawal, bankruptcy, insanity or of sorts could lead to the end of the partnership.

Conclusively, governmentally recognized partnerships may enjoy special benefits in tax policies. Among developed countries, for example, business partnerships are often favored over corporations in taxation policy, since dividend taxes only occur on profits before they are distributed to the partners. However, depending on the partnership structure and the jurisprudence in which it operates, owners of a partnership may be exposed to greater personal liability than they would as shareholders of a corporation.

Compare Policies to Find Cheap Car Insurance

The idea of ​​a low cost car policy is something that has certainly been convoluted by the variety of bad advice and recommendations that are so littered across the internet. Unfortunately, most people make the mistake of looking for a car policy that costs the least and totally forget that a car policy product is supposed to carry some basic features to be really useful. The result of such a choice is that the buyer ends up regretting his / her choice and wishing for a more complete product. In order to find complete car policy that is also cheap, you need to compare multiple policies available online and this comparison process should include almost all the relevant aspects of policy to make it truly comparable. Here is a list of those aspects.

1. The service provider:
The provider of the insurance instrument is critical for you to find a policy that is really useful because it is the provider who has to approve or reject your claims. In different words, since the provider has to honor the claims, it is important that you find one who is respectable and genuine. Therefore, you should go through different reviews and comments posted online and try to tie yourself to only the best provider.

2. The coverage of the policy:
It is also very important for you to find a policy that has decent cover. Decent cover for every buyer would be different because the needs of every buyer are different. For example, you might be a bachelore which would mean that you will not really need co-passenger cover. In contrast, if you are a married man, then you would need a product that provides cover to your co-passengers. Here, understanding your specific requirements and finding a policy that matches them is something you should not neglect.

3. Network of garages or workshops:
The purpose of a car insurance product is to make your life easier in every way possible. This means that it should not only provide the right compensation but also do so in the most convenient manner. This is why the policy provider should have a vast network of workshops and garages. A wider network would allow you to get your car repaired and also have your claims honored as conveniently as possible.

4. Additional benefits and bonuses:
Finally, there are many providers online and offline who really try to attract potential buyers by adding value to their products. This value usually comes in the form of discounts and bonus benefits. For example, the no claims bonus feature is a very common value addition tool that is used by online providers. This feature would allow you to reduce the premiums that you have to pay if you have not made claims on your previous insurance policies. Needless to say, these added features are a wonderful way to not only make your policy more useful but also reduce the cost of buying it.

Cheap car insurance is a lot more than an empty policy which costs nothing. A cheap car insurance policy should ideally be able to protect and serve you while not costing a fortune.